Something About Bronxville NY
Why do I love servicing Bronxville NY?
Besides liking to deal with a smart, savvy clientele (yes, they do exist elsewhere) often living in architecturally beautiful homes, it’s great to be in close proximity to Sarah Lawrence College. That’s where professor Joseph Campbell taught comparative mythology.
Campbell was a great influence on me having read his works when I was around 11 or 12 years old. His work complemented another big influencer in my life, Carl Jung, at the time.
I’ll never forget seeing the series of TV interviews Joseph Campbell did with Bill Moyers back in 1987 called The Power of Myth. It was great to see popularized interesting and important ideas proposed by intellectuals such as Campbell.
Another aspect of Bronxville village that I like is it’s gorgeous downtown area. Having grown up in Oradell, NJ, a well-to-do suburban town without a real downtown (it has mostly banks, hair salons, and only one restaurant), I appreciate what Bronxville has done with it.
Finally, and as a segue, I would add my keen interest in local history. Particularly, the colonial era when anything north of New Amsterdam (southern Manhattan Island) was actual wilderness. But not empty wilderness: the Siwanoy indians were here long before whites began settling the area.
As an avid nature lover (I eloped in front of a remote waterfall in Iceland witnessed by three sheep on the hillside above us and two ravens flying overhead), I still find it fascinating that the NYC area sprawl is such a recent thing. At home, looking westward out my window, I can see New Jersey’s Palisades. It still looks pretty much the same as it did for thousands of years before Bronxville village was recently incorporated in 1898.
Andrew Lagomarsino, Owner
Feng Shui Maid Service
We mainly serve:
Bronxville 10552 & 10708, Scarsdale 10583, Larchmont 10538
Bronxville NY History
Note: In order to keep the scale of our pages manageable for readers, we have divided the regional history of southern Westchester County among our Bronxville, Scarsdale, and Larchmont pages as follows:
Long before there was the village of Scarsdale NY (est. 1788), Larchmont (est. 1891), or Bronxville NY (est. 1898), there were the Siwanoy Indians living in the immediate area, mostly concentrated along Pelham Bay. Next to nothing is known about them. They were a very small tribe within a larger, loosely organized Wappinger Confederacy that stretched from the eastern shore of the Hudson River to the western shore of the Connecticut River. They also are known for killing Ann Hutchinson, a very early settler, in 1643.[1, 2]
Due to ongoing conflict with white settlers, the remaining Siwanoy were eventually forced out of the area and absorbed by other tribes west and north of Westchester County.
In 1639, Jonas Bronck (died 1643), who was either Dutch or Swedish, was the first white settler to the area which was part of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. The colony was controlled the Dutch West India Company as a means to capitalize on the North American fur trade. Bronck saw farming as an excellent opportunity to make good money selling food to other settlers who were engaged directly and indirectly in the fur trade.[4, 5]
Although he only lived on his 680-acre farm for about four years, the general area became known as the “Broncksland” well into the 18th Century. Eventually, The Bronx River, Bronx County, and The Bronx borough of New York City were named after him. He located his homestead in an area which is now called Mott Haven, Bronx.
The Dutch West India Company hired Willem Kieft (c. 1597-1647) in 1638 to become the Director-General of New Netherland. Initially, Kieft tried to drive out the Indian population through the levy of harsh taxes. Eventually, he resorted to armed force.
Kieft was more than willing to provoke the Indians by committing massacres during his tenure. Starting in 1641, Dutch colonists and Indians, particularly the Manhattans tribe, fought one another on and off until 1663. Though far fewer skirmishes erupted while Peter Stuyvesant was director-general, the ongoing war claimed more than 1,000 Indian and settler lives. Probably far more Indians died than colonists?[8, 9]
A number of these Indian attacks occurred around the time of Jonas Bronck’s death in 1843. It is possible he might have died in one of them.
Learn more about Jonas Bronck by visiting Wikipedia’s Jonas Bronck page.
Anne Hutchinson (c.1541-1643), an Englishwoman banished from Boston’s fanatical Puritan circle in 1638, settled in the wilderness area of what would today be between the river and parkway that bare her name. Not far from what is now a famous outcrop called Split Rock.
In 1643, around the time of Jonas Bronck’s death, Hutchinson, six of her children, and nine others were massacred by Siwanoy Indian Tribe. Only her nine-year-old daughter, Susanna, who was at Split Rock at the time of the massacre survived. Susanna was taken captive.
Today, Hutchinson is a controversial figure. She is either disparaged as a religious fanatic or praised as a courageous woman. Learn more about her by visiting Wikipedia’s Anne Hutchenson page.
Return Of White Settlers
In 1646 Adriaen Van der Donck (c.1618 – 1655) who was the first Dutch lawyer in New Netherlands, purchased a 16-mile stretch of land along the Hudson River, from Spuyten Duyvil Creek (now filled-in) to what is present-day Crotonville, NY.  Locals called him “de Jonkheer” and the area of his land became known as “Jonkheer’s.” Yonkers County’s name comes from this nickname. Van der Donck built a mill on the Nepperhan River whose name eventually changed to Saw Mill River. 
Learn more about the fascinating Adrian Van der Donck by visiting Wikipedia’s Adrian Van der Donck page.
Authoritarian Peter Stuyvesant (c. 1610-1672) replaced the failed Willem Kieft as Director-General of New Netherlands in 1647. Due to Kieft’s ineptitude, only a few settlements remained outside of New Amsterdam when he took over from Kieft. Stuyvesant did not enjoy much success either.
Though he his dealings with the Indians were more sensible, the new director general tenure was plagued by internal strife. He was extremely controversial, acting as a despot by exercising too much control over the lives of ordinary citizens and the Dutch Reform Church.
In 1655, local Siwanoy attacked Van der Donck’s settlement and the Dutch on Manhattan Island after an Indian squaw was shot while illegally picking peaches in a New Amsterdam orchard. Some 100 settlers were killed and 150 captured. Another 300 lost everything they owned. Stuyvesant did not retaliate with force but instead ransomed Indian prisoners. 
70 Dutch settlers were killed or captured in 1663 near what is now Wall Street by northern tribes. The director general responded by wiping out the invaders, marking the end of major troubles with local Indians. 
Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to the British Navy in 1664, at least partly due to the lack of Dutch colonist support. His own people refused to rally to defend the city against the British.
This proved to be a huge blow to Dutch ambitions in the New World. Soon after the English captured of New Amsterdam, changing the name to New York, the British took control of the remainder of New Netherlands, including New Jersey and parts of New England.
The year 1673 saw the Dutch briefly regain New Amsterdam, renaming it New Orange.  That happened in July. However, by November 1674, as part of the Treaty of Westminster, the settlement was returned to the British and the name reverted to New York. 
Learn more about the unpopular Peter Stuyvesant by visiting New Netherland Institute’s Peter Stuyvesant page.
In 1654, Thomas Pell, an English physician carved out his own manor (Pell Manor) by purchasing about 50,000 acres of land from Siwanoy Chieftan Wampage under the Treaty Oak near Bartow Pell Mansion in Pelham. A manor at the time was a tract of land granted to one person to administer. 
About 9 years later, he transferred lands to 10 settler families at what became to known as the Village of East Chester (eventually, the Town of Eastchester). Local lore has it that Pell purchased land from Siwanoy Chieftain Gramatan on Sunset Hill in what later became Bronxville, NY.
Learn more about Thomas Pell by visiting Wikipedia’s Thomas Pell page.
North Riding on the Main
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Soon after England gained control of New Netherlands, “North Riding on the Main,” present-day Westchester County, ever more British settlers arrived. And with more settles came more manors.
From North to South along the Hudson, Cortlandt Manor (1683), Philipse Manor (1693), Fordham Manor (1671), Morrisania Manor (1697) were established. Essentially, the new owners named their lands after themselves and became landlords to persons leasing smaller tracts. Morrisania Manor was originally part of Jonas Bronck’s land. Philipse Manor was originally Adriaen Van der Donck’s estate.
Other manors and purchases sprung up eastwards as well, including Rye (1660), Mamaroneck (1661), Eastchester (1666), Pelham Manor (1666), Harrison (1696), Scarsdale (1701).
King Charles II of England (c. 1630-1685) gave his brother, the Duke of York, the territory between Delaware Bay and the Connecticut River in 1664. Holland took New Amsterdam back 
In 1687, the northeast section of Thomas Pell’s manor was bought by French Protestants called Huguenots. Eventually, as more Frenchmen fled religious persecution in France and settled in the area, it was renamed New Rochelle after La Rochelle, the French stronghold. 
Westchester County itself was formed in 1683 and named after West Chester, one of Thomas Pell’s original settlements established soon after his 1654 land purchase. West Chester has since been absorbed by Bronx County development encroachment. [30, 31]
More and more people began to arrive after the British ended the threat of Indian attack. Gradually the last tracts of Indian land were sold off. By 1700, 1500 settlers had made Westchester County their home. Fifty years later, the county’s population had grown to 11,000. 
Even without the Indian threat, Westchester was still a wilderness. Settlements were scattered and small. If you were riding through the county on horseback, you would see heavy woods, streams still abundant with fish…occasional farms…saw and grist mills.” 
[Section Under Construction]
American Revolutionary War
Note: In order to keep the scale of our pages manageable for readers, we have divided the general history of southern Westchester County among our Bronxville, Scarsdale, and Larchmont pages as follows:
Frank Abagnale, Jr. (born 1948), security consultant and former con artist, check forger, and infamous impostor, was the inspiration for the the movie Catch Me If You Can and a Broadway musical by the same name.[1, 2]
Roy Chapman Andrews (1884-1960), director of American Museum of Natural History, explorer, and naturalist whose contributions included the first discovery of fossilized dinosaur eggs and was the major inspiration for the Indiana Jones movie character.
Myles Arthur (born 1998), Instagram star, creator of many popular memes.
Mike Aviles (born 1981), Concordia College (New York) graduate, MLB Cleveland Indian utility player who has played every position except for pitcher, catcher, and first base.
Harriet Hubbard Ayer (1849-1903), basically created the beauty product industry and consumer market for women’s cosmetics in the second half of the nineteenth century and was a journalist, and, for 14 months, a resident of the Bronxville Insane Asylum for “melancholia” and morphine addiction.
Kenneth Bacon (1944–2009), born in Bronxville, journalist, Department of Defense spokesman for Bill Clinton, president of Refugees International, played a part in the Monica Lewinsky scandal by releasing the private information of employee Linda Tripps’s personnel file to reporter.
Chris Baio (born 1984), born in Bronxville, alternative rock bassist for the indie rock band Vampire Weekend.
Adam Bertocci (born 1982), filmmaker and writer.
Lili Bordan (born 1982), Hungarian actress attended Sarah Lawrence College, was cast as Dr. Becca Kelly in SciFi Channel’s “Battlestar Galactica: Blood and Chrome” who played a civilian software engineer for Graystone Industries during the First Cylon War.
Mary Cain (born 1996), a professional middle distance woman runner and 2014 World Junior Champion in the 3000 meter event.
Lawrence Dutton (born 1954), Emerson String Quartet, Grammy winning violist.
Adam Bertocci (born 1982), filmmaker and writer.
Felicia Bond (born 1954), author and illustrator of If You Give… children’s book series.
Marvin Bower (1903-2003), former Managing Director of McKinsey & Company and, according to Harvard Business school, he is “considered the father of modern management consulting.”[14, 15]
Mika Brzezinski (born 1967), television personality, daughter of the late Zbigniew Brzezinski, who was a political scientist and diplomat, counselor to President Lyndon Johnson and National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter.
Thomas S. Buechner (1936–2010), grew up in Bronxville, founding director of the Corning Museum of Glass, director of the Brooklyn Museum, sculpture garden designer, and painter of Alice Tully’s portrait hanging in the foyer of Lincoln Center’s Alice Tully Hall.
Cathy DeBuono (born 1970), raised in Bronxville, award-winning volleyball player, actress, psychotherapist, and radio talk show host, she played a character for 3 seasons on Star Trek: Deep Space 9 named “M’Pella,” who worked as a “dabo girl” (a beautiful human or alien-species female that operates a casino table roulette-style game of chance) in Quark’s on Deep Space 9 for a number of years .[18, 19]
William J. Burns (1861-1932), secret service agent, tireless self-promoter, founder of the William J. Burns International (now part of Securitas Security Services USA), and director of the Bureau of Investigation, the FBI’s predecessor organization, known as “America’s Sherlock Holmes,” he worked on a number of well-publicized crime cases, including the 1910 Los Angeles Times building bombing.[20, 21, 22]
Janet Cox-Rearick (born 1930), born in Bronxville, art historian, Distinguished Professor of Art History at the City University of New York, awarded a knighthood by the french government for her scholarship on Francois I. [23, 24]
Elizabeth Custer (1942-1933), widow of Brevet Major General George Armstrong Custer, followed him wherever his army career took them during the Civil War and subsequent Great Plains assignments, almost single-handedly rehabilitated her husband’s reputation after his defeat at the Battle of Little Big Horn through lectures and articles to the point where the image of s “steely Custer leading his men against overwhelming odds only to be wiped out while defending their position to the last man became as much a part of American lore as the Alamo.
Don DeLillo (born 1936), prolific novelist, playwright, and essayist, National Book Award winner and two-time Pulitzer Prize for Fiction finalist, once summarized his work as being about “living in dangerous times” and declared, “Writers must oppose systems. It’s important to write against power, corporations, the state, and the whole system of consumption and of debilitating entertainments…I think writers, by nature, must oppose things, oppose whatever power tries to impose on us.”
Francis William Edmonds (1806–63), genre painter, work exhibited at the New York Academy, elected an academician of the National Academy, and active in the American Art-Union. 
Erik-Michael Estrada (born 1979), rock singer and member of the boy band O-Town, best known for their #1 US Pop Billboard chart song “All or Nothing” in 2001.
Lawrence Ferlinghetti (born 1919), beat poet, author, winner of the Janus Pannonius International Poetry Prize and the National Book Foundation’s Literian Award, and co-founder of City Lights, a landmark independent bookstore and publisher.[33, 34]
Ford C. Frick (1894-1978), teacher, sportswriter, public relations director of the National League, National League President, Commissioner of Major League Baseball, played important role in creating the Baseball Hall of Fame museum, baseball integration advocate, and elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1970.[35, 36]
Timothy Geithner (born 1961), central banker, President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, US Secretary of the Treasury.
Rev Dr. Henry Feth (died 1927), Concordia Collegiate Institute’s third president, said to be one of the more “unfriendly spirits on campus,” his ghost haunts Feth Hall, an all-male dorm, on the Concordia College campus, as an anonymous student explained in February of 2017: “in my [dorm] room I have felt this presence. My room door will open and close on its own, I have felt someone grab [me] like a hug, and I heard noises at night.”
Sephard Hill (born 1953), President Boeing International.
John Hoyt (born John McArthur Hoysradt 1905-1991), born and raised in Bronxville, film and stage actor, standup comedian.
Rose Kennedy (1890-1995), Kennedy family matriarch, philanthropist, socialite, and sixth American woman to be granted the title of Countess by Vatican decree, lived in Bronxville from 1929 to 1938 and then again 1939-1940 at 294 Pondfield Road (house torn down in 1953), a columned mansion known as the Crownlands sitting on 5.5 acres.
Joseph P. Kennedy (1888-1969), Kennedy family patriarch, infamous bootlegger, businessman, first Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission, Ambassador to Great Britain.
Robert F. Kennedy (1925-1968), lawyer, Attorney General, U.S. Senator from New York.
Ted Kennedy (1932-2009), U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, for almost 47 years.
John F. Kennedy (1917-1963), United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts, best President of the United States ever, murdered in broad daylight by our wonderful oligarchs.
Denison Kitchel (1908-2002), born in Bronxville, attorney, advisor, and campaign manager for Barry M. Goldwater, 1964 Republican Nominee, developing a profound distain for campaigning and “kissing babies.”
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987),controversial psychologist famous for his theories on moral development.
Brendan Gill (1914-1997), New Yorker writer for over 60 years.
Michael Gates Gill, author of the memoir How Starbucks Saved My Life: A Son of Privilege Learns to Live Like Everyone Else recounts his experience of how he lost his life of privilege as a high-level advertising executive with J. Walter Thompson to working as a Starbucks barista.
Roger Goodell (born 1959), Commissioner of the National Football League. 
Don Herbert (1917-2007), a.k.a., Mr. Wizard, “the friendly, neighborhood scientist,” Peabody Award winner, hosted a wildly popular television series, Watch Mr. Wizard, that turned children on to science and technology, produced many other videos and authored several books about science for children.
Joseph Landy (born 1962?), Co-Chief Executive Officer of Warburg Pincus, Director of CrowdStrike and Kosmos Energy Ltd, Treasurer of the Boy Scouts of America and Member of its National Executive Board, and is also on the Board of Trustees of New York University.
William Van Duzer Lawrence (1842–1927), millionaire real-estate and pharmaceutical mogul, philanthropist, founded Sarah Lawrence College and Lawrence Hospital, developer of Lawrence Park.[57, 58]
Brice Marden (Nicholas Brice Marden Jr 1938), artist, “generally described as a ‘Minimalist,’ although his work may be hard to categorize,” member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, received an honorary degree of Doctor of Fine Arts from Brown University.[62, 63]
Karyn Marshall (born 1956), olympic weightlifter, first women’s world champion in weightlifting, setting 60 American and world records in women’s weightlifting, first woman in history to clean and jerk over 300 lbs, doctor of chiropractic, inducted into the USA Weightlifting Hall of Fame and the International Weightlifting Hall of Fame, and TED talk speaker.
Ginna Sulcer Marston (born Ginna Sulcer 1958), attended Bronxville high school , advertising executive best known for her anti-drug advertising campaigns for Partnership for a Drug Free America and other public service organizations, most memorable being This is your brain on drugs.[65, 66]
Jack Paar (1918-2004), author, radio and television comedian, The Tonight Show talk show host, nominated for an Emmy Award by a Continuing Character in a Musical or Variety Series and for an Emmy for Best Continuing Performance in a Series by a Comedian, Singer, Host, Dancer, M.C., Announcer, Narrator, or Panelist.
Frank Patterson (1938-2000), a.k.a. “Ireland’s Golden Tenor,” internationally admired Irish tenor, appeared in a number of movies.
Mark Patterson (born 1953?), private equity and hedge fund businessman and professional race car driver.
Gretchen Peters (born 1957), born in Bronxville, as songwriter composed hits for many country music singers and as singer released seven albums, inducted to the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame.[73, 74]
Peter Pennoyer (born 1957), award-winning architect and principle of Peter Pennoyer Architects.
Eddie Rickenbacker (1890-1973), famed World War I fighter pilot, recipient of many awards including the Medal of Honor, race car driver, automobile designer, and president of Eastern Airlines.[77, 78]
Dennis Ritchie (1941-2011), computer scientist, creator of the C programming language and co-creator of the Unix operating system, helped modern digital era get going, Turing Award recipient among other prestigious awards.
Joan Rivers (Joan Alexandra Molinsky 1933-2014), controversial comedienne, actress, writer, producer, and television host.
Gary Robinson (born 1956), born in Bronxville, mathematician, software engineer, entrepreneur.
John Q. Kelly (born 1953), lawyer, refers to himself as ”…as the most sought after wrongful death lawyer in the land”, former clients include families of Nicole Brown Simpson and Natalee Holloway.
Chuck Scarborough (Charles Bishop “Chuck Scarborough III born 1943), television news anchor and author.
Tina Sloan (born 1943), soap opera actress, played Lillian Raines on Guiding Light soap, author of Changing Shoes: One Woman’s Search for the Meaning of Life in a Closet Full of Shoes, an autobiography.
Tad Smith (Thomas Sidney “Tad” Smith, Jr. 1965), president and CEO of Sotheby’s.
Ruth Ann Swenson (born 1959), born in Bronxville, operatic soprano, best known for her coloratura roles, recipient of the Richard Tucker Music Foundation Award, San Francisco Opera Medal, and other awards.
Philip Torchio (1868-1942), electrical engineer and mayor of Bronxville, best known for his inventions in electrical transmission working for Edison Electric Company, recipient of the IEEE Edison Medal for “distinguished contributions to the art of central station engineering and for achievement in the production, distribution and utilization of electrical energy.”
Know of any notable people with some kind of connection with Bronxville NY?
Email us now any suggestions you may have!
Please spell their names correctly and tell us a little bit about each person you’d like included on the above list. Thanks!
Things To Do
Bronx River Parkway Reservation
Hang out in, walk, run, bike the Reservation which has three paved sections:
- 1-mile loop near Oak Street in Mount Vernon,
- 4.6-mile segment Palmer Road in Bronxville north to Crane Road in Scarsdale, and
- 5-mile segment Green Acres Avenue in Hartsdale to Kensico Dam Plaza in Valhalla.
Top 5 List
Parks and Recreation
With over 70 acres of parks, athletic fields, woodlands, The Village of Bronxville has dedicated over 11 percent of its total area for public use. The main areas of open space include The Bronxville School’s athletic fields and Bacon Woodlands and relatively small sections of the Bronx River Parkway Reservation and Scout Field.
Owned by Westchester County, the Bronx River Parkway Reservation is the county’s oldest park. It features pleasant areas for bicycling, walking, running, and bird watching amid a quasi-natural setting of wooden and concrete footbridges, ponds, and woodlands. “The Duck Pond” is perhaps the most popular area of the Reservation.
Located off Midland Avenue, parcels of the 22.9-acre sports and recreation grounds of Scout Field lie within Yonkers, Mt Vernon, and Bronxville. The Town of Eastchester, in which the Village of Bronxville is a part, manages the heavily used facility. The Bronxville School’s baseball, football, soccer, and cross-country teams use the field on a regular basis.
The Bronxville School’s sports facilities include a running track, a football field, basketball courts, and three fields used for lacrosse, hockey, and other activities. Bacon Woodlands, a very small park, features a natural rock outcropping and a child play area.
From Mid-April through November, weather permitting, the Village of Bronxville has tennis programs for children and adults (private, semi-private, and group). Learn more about Tennis here or contact Jessica Watts via email firstname.lastname@example.org or call the Tennis Office at Village Hall (914) 337-6500 x100 Tuesday and Friday 10 am to 2 pm.
Paddle Court Tennis
Besides matches, there are lessons, clinics, and social mixers (7:30 to 9:30 pm on select Thursday nights, November through March). Learn more about Paddle Court Tennis here or contact Jessica Watts via email email@example.com or phone the Tennis Office at (914) 337-6500 x100 Tuesday and Friday 10 am to 2 pm.
The Westchester County Parks Department schedules closings on a length of the Bronxville River Parkway to cars between 10 am and 2 pm each Sunday — except those that fall on holiday weekends — from April to June and from September to October. This closed-off 7-mile stretch of the Parkway does not run through Bronxville but extends from Scarsdale Road, north of Bronxville, to White Plains.
The Bronxville Public School
One building houses all the elementary, middle, and high schools students — some 1635 student total in 2012. Newsweek magazine consistently ranks the school district in the top 50 best school districts in the country. The magazine rated the district 40th in the nation in a 2012 ranking and 42nd in a 2013 ranking.[1, 2] In 2012, the high school was ranked 2nd among “open enrollment” high schools in the country. In 2015, Newsweek ranked the district was ranked 29th in the country.
Bronxville High School students overall perform very well on standardized test scores like the SAT. In 2010, the average SAT score was 1950. In 2012, the average was 1898.
The Chapel School
Affiliated with the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod , the school enrolls about 330 students from Preschool to eighth grade, focusing on inclusion over competition. Classes average about 15 students each. Chapel School has more than 30,000 square feet of space for learning and athletics. Through its long-standing connection to Concordia College, students have access to much of Concordia’s athletic and performing arts facilities.
Sarah Lawrence College
The college is a private liberal arts school established by real-estate mogul William Van Duzer Lawrence (1842-1927) and named in honor of his wife, Sarah Bates Lawrence (1846-1926).
Known for low its small average class size and highly individualized course of study, according to Forbes magazine, it bases its academic approach after the Oxford/Cambridge system of one-on-one student-faculty tutorials, emphasizing independent scholarship, particularly in the humanities, performing arts, and writing.
In 2018, U.S. News & World Report ranked Sarah Lawrence College 53rd in the National Liberal Arts Colleges category. Princeton Review in 2016 praised the school as having the “best classroom experience” in all of America.
Concordia College (New York)
The school offers associate, bachelor, and master’s degrees. Founded in 1881 as Concordia Progymnasium, the four-year coeducational liberal arts college is sponsored by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and is a member of the Concordia University System.